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 Team Photo at Waikato-Tainui College for Research and Development in Ngaruawahia

Workshop Retreat - November 2020          (Absent from photo: Natalie Jackson and Tahu Kukutai)


Research History Background

Multi-disciplinary teams from Massey University, University of Waikato and Motu Research have been working together on Immigration and Diversity research since 1998.

Capturing the Diversity Dividend of Aotearoa/New Zealand-CaDDANZ (2014-2021)

Capturing the Diversity Dividend of Aotearoa/New Zealand (CaDDANZ, pronounced 'cadence') is a research programme led by teams from the University of Waikato and Massey University. The team also includes staff from Motu Economic and Public Policy Research in Wellington. It is funded by the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment.

The 'face' of New Zealand is changing rapidly as a consequence of the settlement  of migrants from throughout the world, temporary and circular international migration, growing ethnic diversity, population ageing, changing fertility patterns and urban growth.

CaDDANZ is  a research programme that will identify how New Zealand can better prepare for, and respond to, these demographic changes in order for the country to maximise the benefits associated with an increasingly diverse population.

The research measures, maps and analyses the complex societal impacts of diversity and the implications for businesses, households and communities of mobility, migration indigeneity, ethnic identity, demographic change (including structural ageing and fertility) and urban/regional disparities. A significant component of the research is concerned with the implications of diversity for Maori and with how Maori engage with diversity.

Principle Investigators: Jacques Poot, Tahu Kukutai and Francis Collins (University of Waikato)

Paul Spoonley (Massey University)

(University of Waikato Team) Natalie Jackson, Michael Cameron, Lars Brabyn, Arama Rata

Admin: Renee Dixon

(Massey University Team) Robin Peace, Jessica Terruhn, Trudie Cain

Admin: Julie Taylor

(Motu Research) Dave Maré 

Nga Tangata Oho Mairangi-NTOM (2012-2014)

New Zealand is experiencing significant population changes as mobility (immigration, emigration, internal migration) combines with an ageing population to impact on labour supply, community development and a sense of belonging or attachment. These demographic and economic changes vary considerably by region and have markedly different outcomes for rural and urban communities. This research provides a detailed model of the nature of these changes at the regional level over the period 1986 to 2013 and will provide projections out to 2036.

Household members, employers and secondary school pupils will provide their understandings of demographic and economic change in their communities, and their perceptions of, and responses toward, the implications. These responses are important given recent demographic developments such as increased cultural diversity, the interconnected effects of demographic ageing and mobility/migration on communities, and regional issues of labour supply (including critical skill shortages) and demand as industries/firms grow or decline.

In this context, immigration will continue to be an important component of New Zealand’s future as a way of providing the required skills and to compensate for ageing or emigration. The research seeks to answer questions such as what keeps individuals or households in a particular community or region? What investments do people make in education/training or employment, and how do these relate to current and future employment opportunities, especially locally? What impact does diversity have on social and economic notions of belonging and attachment, and how do employers respond?

Answering these questions via complex models and statistical projections as well as interviews to reveal the subjective understandings and strategies of individuals and households will generate a multifaceted and nuanced understanding of demographic and economic change and the implications for New Zealand/New Zealanders.

Principle Investigators: Jacque Poot (University of Waikato) and Paul Spoonley (Massey University)

(University of Waikato Team) Natalie Jackson, Michael Cameron, Lars Brabyn, Tahu Kukutai,

(Massey University Team) Robin Peace, Jessica Terruhn, Trudie Cain

(Motu Research) Dave Maré

The Integration of Immigrants Programme (2007-2012)

New Zealand's labour force, more than most in the OECD, is being transformed by international migration. The country is distinctive within the OECD in having both the highest per capita rates of both immigration and emigration. Achieving growth in productivity and innovation, while sustaining an inclusive society that is tolerant of increasing socio-cultural diversity in membership and economic activities, requires a much stronger evidence base on the economic incorporation of migrants and their children. Migration is assuming increasing significance as a process that determines the supply of skilled and unskilled labour within New Zealand's labour market as sub-replacement fertility impacts on the age composition of the population.

The five-year Integration of Immigrants Programme (IIP) aimed to provide the desired evidence base. It employed leading-edge conceptual and methodological approaches from international as well as local research to conduct innovative analyses of existing and new data bases in order to generate policy-relevant evidence about pathways to economic incorporation in New Zealand for immigrants and their immediate descendants. The research programme updated and significantly expanded earlier New Zealand research on migrant economic incorporation with the aim of identifying pathways that overcome barriers to successful integration, and new policy interventions for enhancing outcomes for both the new residents and the host society.

The IIP has two linked objectives. Objective 1, led by population economist Professor Jacques Poot (University of Waikato), draws on data from the 1996, 2001 and 2006 Censuses of Population and Dwellings (the census) and the Longitudinal Immigrants Survey: New Zealand (LisNZ) to develop an econometric model of the integration of immigrant cohorts that takes account of both the demand and supply factors that determine labour market outcomes. Objective 2, led by sociologist Professor Paul Spoonley (Massey University), makes extensive use of the census and LisNZ data, as well as new information from specialist surveys and case studies, to provide new policy-relevant evidence of pathways to economic incorporation in both the formal labour market as well as in a variety of informal and non-formal ethnic-related settings. The latter include family businesses, non-paid domestic and family economic activity, self-employment, and paid and unpaid community work.

The IIP aims to make a significant contribution to the policy objective of optimising the use of immigrant human capital by quantifying the nature and extent of skill under-utilisation, identifying barriers to effective economic integration of migrants and their families, and developing strategies for enhancing family/household well-being in formal and informal economic settings. The goal is to be able to demonstrate that there have been progressive improvements in the utilisation of immigrant human capital, to the advantage of the migrants and the host society, as measured by robust quantitative and qualitative indicators of economic outcomes for immigrants.

Principle Investigators: Jacque Poot (University of Waikato) and Paul Spoonley (Massey University)

(University of Waikato Team) Richard Bedford, Elsie Ho

(Massey University Team) Robin Peace, Trudie Cain

(Motu Research) Dave Maré

The New Settlers Research Programme (1998-2006)

This research was funded by the New Zealand Foundation for Research, Science and Technology (FRST) and the Public Good Science Fund (PGSF). The research focused on immigrant settlement in New Zealand, and aimed to contribute to the attainment of three broad, interrelated outcomes:

Development of a balanced, well integrated institutional structure of immigration consisting of:
an immigration policy regulating entry
an effective post-arrival immigrant policy geared to the economic, social and cultural needs of migrants (assisting them to adjust and integrate)
an ethnic relations policy appropriate to a situation of emerging multiculturalism.
A reduction in the difficulties experienced by immigrants in the process of settlement.
An increase in the benefits accruing to New Zealand from its targeted immigration programme.

Principle Investigators: Richard Bedford (University of Waikato) and Paul Spoonley (Massey University)