Methodology

A 'combined research design' (Vogt et al, 2012) that incorporates quantitative, qualitative and indigenous methodological approaches will be used. The proposed design is pragmatic (Bryman, 2012) and draws on multiple, integrated (Chamberlain et al., 2011) interdisciplinary research deployed across three major research themes.

  1. Ethno-demographic diversity
  2. Societal impacts and opportunities
  3. Institutional implications and responses.

In addition to considering national and regional dynamics, three cities comprise the geospatial foci for the research: Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch.

1.Ethno-demographic diversity : A range of interconnected projects, each with its own quantitative or qualitative method, fall within this theme.

EDD1. Projection-based analyses of future ethnic composition will be carried out using state-of-the-art stochastic (probabilistic) ethnic population projections at national and subnational levels.

EDD2. A spatial microsimulation model of Auckland City will demonstrate the likely changes in ethnic diversity at the local level across the city.

EDD3. Summarising and monitoring diversity within the population requires identifying and using a range of multi-dimensional diversity measurements. In this project, the operationalisation of diversity measures innovatively extends common practices of measuring group diversity and spatial diversity to capture the properties of the joint distributions more effectively.

EDD4. This project will examine intragenerational (individual), intergenerational (parent-child) and familial changes in ethnicity in NZ through a novel analysis of longitudinal census data (1981-2013)

EDD5. The relationships between Maori cultural identity, and political and civic participation will be explored through statistical analyses of the inaugural and nationally representative Maori Social Survey.

EDD6. A mixed-method project conceptualises and examines ethno-demographic diversity from an explicitly indigenous standpoint (Walter & Andersen, 2013). It is informed by the high-level question: What are the unique and shared aspirations of Maori and migrants for living together productively? The project will use a mixed methods approach including semi-structured interviews with Maori and migrants living in areas with low, medium and high levels of diversity and focus groups organised in collaboration with Maori and migrant stakeholders.

2. Societal impacts and opportunities : The following projects concern the social, economic, political, cultural, environmental and infrastructural consequences of projected population change at national and sub-national levels.

SIO1. The impact of ethno-demographic composition of firm employment on firm performance is a complex issue, given that there are many positive and negative channels of influence (Ozgen et al., 2013). Using the Integrated Data Infrastructure, we will investigate how firm innovation, productivity and growth are affected by demographic diversity, in the context of within firm and agglomeration wide determinants.

SIO2. A second set of quantitative projects concerns estimation of the impact of diversity on households in terms of wages received, wellbeing and housing markets.

SIO3. During the second half of the CaDDANZ programme, the national and sub-national projections of ethno-demographic diversity will be used to assess potential infrastructure and environmental consequences, using scenario approaches.

SIO4. 'Urban encounters' and an understanding of commonplace diversity (Wessendorf, 2013) employs multiple research methods to reveal how everyday interactions, including practices of consumption (at events such as festivals/ethnic precincts) that occur in homeogeneous/heterogeneous communities in Auckland impact on how difference is understood, negotiated and contested. Cultural diversity enhances urban vibrancy and consumption opportunities.

SIO5. An internet map server that provides interactive Demographic Decision Support (DDS) will be developed. This will combine Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis and geo-visualisation functionality (Peterson, 2005) to assess population diversity statistics.

SIO6. A geo-visualisation decision support system that represents a kaupapa Maori framework will be developed.

SIO7. Social cohesion, along with social mobility and economic performance in a hyperdiversified city such as Auckland occurs in governed spaces.  This project titled Urban Governance, will undertake place-based analyses of integration initiatives that identify new governance arrangements focused on "increas[ing] communication between diverse groups and [facilitatiing] social cohesion, economic performance and social mobility" (Divercities, 2013)

3. Institutional implications and responses : Both quantitative and qualitative projects contribute to this theme: developmental, impact and meta-evaluations, participatory action research, discourse analysis, and geographic information system mapping.

IIR1. How key institutions have and are responding to diversity will be the focus. In the first case, those institutions that contribute to the state approach to diversity management/promotion, including to social cohesion, will be identified and approached to participate in formative, developmental evaluations (Patton 2011; Kellogg Foundation, 2010)

IIR2. A Participatory Action Research (PAR) in two schools will use a range of methods including Photovoice (Wilson et al., 2007) to investigate how diversity policy shapes students' experiences and understandings of diversity in practice (and place).

IIR3. A meta-evaluation (Coryn et al, 2007; Stufflebeam, 2001) will synthesise the characteristics of successful interventions in ''diversity planning' across a range of institutions and populations to identify 'what works'.

IIR4. The societal value of the econometric modelling of the diversity impacts is enhanced by explicitly distinguishing between statistical and economic significance (e.g. Poot, 2014) and the implications of this distinction for policy formulation.

IIR5. Deconstructing discourse uses Participatory Action Research to understand how difference is understood and articulated by school students in two differently diverse secondary schools in Auckland.

IIR6. Visualising and articulating diversity will invite members of the community to contribute stories of their experiences of diversity as autobiographical narratives in audio/video life histories or photographic images in contemporary NZ.

IIR7. An evaluation of the DDS's effectiveness will reveal the most efficient ways to disseminate the consequences of geo-referenced demographic trends and identify the strengths and weaknesses of the implementation of the support system at various organisations.

A meta-synthesis of all research components will be completed in the final year synthesising the quantitative and qualitative elements of the research. The results of this synthesis will published in ebook form.